[75], In 1948, the religious makeup of the city was 85% Christian, mostly of the Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic denominations, and 13% Muslim. In the New Testament, the Gospel of Luke says that Jesus' parents traveled from Nazareth to Bethlehem, where Jesus was born. [36], Bethlehem, along with Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Sidon, was briefly ceded to the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem by a treaty between Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II and Ayyubid Sultan al-Kamil in 1229, in return for a ten-year truce between the Ayyubids and the Crusaders. It was initiated by Palestinian Prime Minister and former Finance Minister Salam Fayyad to convince more than a thousand businessmen, bankers and government officials from throughout the Middle East to invest in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Bethlehem of Judah is on the ridge of the Judean Hills and near the desert, thus a place of emptiness, of humility. 1Now after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, magi from the east arrived in Jerusalem, saying, 2“Where is He who has been born King of the Jews? August is the hottest month, with a high of 30 degrees Celsius (86 °F). Rachel's Tomb, the traditional grave site, stands at the entrance to Bethlehem. [62], Bethlehem has a Mediterranean climate, with hot and dry summers and mild, wetter winters. [117] The industry was noted by Richard Pococke, who visited Bethlehem in 1727. Hamas gained the majority of the open seats in the 2005 Palestinian municipal elections. the capital of Israel. “Jerusalem” (Matthew 2:1), the largest city in Judea and “When Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, in the days of King Herod, behold, magi from the east arrived in Jerusalem, saying, ‘Where … The Greek Orthodox were given control of the basilica and shared control of the Milk Grotto with the Latins and the Armenians. There were 11,079 males and 10,594 females. Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of King Herod, behold, wise men from the east came to Jerusalem, saying, (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV) Matthew 2:5 They said to him, "In Bethlehem of Judea, for thus it is written through the prophet, (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV) Matthew 2:6 In this story of the destitute widow and the Bethlehem man who later married, protected, and provided for her, we see a picture of Jesus, our kinsman redeemer. [79] Bethlehem's two largest Arab Christian clans trace their ancestry to the Ghassanids, including al-Farahiyyah and an-Najajreh. Located in the Galilee near Kiryat Tivon , around 10 kilometres north-west of Nazareth and 30 kilometres east of Haifa , it falls under the jurisdiction of the Jezreel Valley Regional Council . About that time some wise men from eastern lands arrived in Jerusalem, asking, “Where is the newborn king of the Jews? [10] Land seizures for Israeli settlements have also prevented construction of a new hospital for the inhabitants of Bethlehem, as well as the barrier separating dozens of Palestinian families from their farmland and Christian communities from their places of worship.[10]. [64] There is also a Syriac quarter outside of the old city,[62] whose inhabitants originate from Midyat and Ma'asarte in Turkey. During the early months of First Intifada, on 5th May 1989, Milad Anton Shahin, aged 12, was shot dead by Israeli soldiers. Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, suddenly wise men from the east came to Jerusalem, saying, Noyes New Testament. By: Megan Sauter. Where is “Judea” (Matthew 2:1)? [79] Another Bethlehem clan, al-Anatreh, also trace their ancestry to the Ghassanids. Talmor, Ronny (translated by Ralph Mandel) (1990). [9], From 1517, during the years of Ottoman control, custody of the Basilica was bitterly disputed between the Catholic and Greek Orthodox churches. The average household consisted of 4.8 family members. [51], On December 21, 1995, Israeli troops withdrew from Bethlehem,[52] and three days later the city came under the administration and military control of the Palestinian National Authority in accordance with the Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Nearby is the Milk Grotto where the Holy Family took refuge on their Flight to Egypt and next door is the cave where St. Jerome spent thirty years creating the Vulgate, the dominant Latin version of the Bible until the Reformation. Bethlehem is very close to the Dead Sea. [81] A higher percentage of Christians in the region are urban-dwellers, which also makes it easier for them to emigrate and assimilate into western populations. Following these, there are pictures of a historic 100-year snowfall in Jerusalem, Palestine, and Egypt. [9][24] The Church of the Nativity was built at her initiative over the cave where Jesus was purported to have been born. The locations that have an underline are represented in the Old Testament period. [9] By the end of the 16th century, Bethlehem had become one of the largest villages in the District of Jerusalem, and was subdivided into seven quarters. After Jesus' birth, Wise Men from the east came to Jerusalem. Located in the Galilee near Kiryat Tivon, around 10 kilometres north-west of Nazareth and 30 kilometres east of Haifa, it falls under the … It was here in young David's hometown that the prophet Samuel anointed him to be king over Israel (1 Samuel 16:1-13). [88] Since the Second Intifada, 10% of the Christian population have left the city. [126] There were 135 schools in the Bethlehem Governorate in 2006; 100 run the Education Ministry of the Palestinian National Authority, seven by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) and 28 were private. [according to whom? Matthew 2 - NIRV: Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea. [81][87] Amon Ramnon, a researcher at the Jerusalem Institute for Policy Research, stated that the reason why more Christians were emigrating than Muslims is because it is easier for Arab Christians to integrate into western communities than for Arab Muslims, since many of them attend church-affiliated schools, where they are taught European languages. It is the traditional birthplace of Jesus. “In Bethlehem in Judea,” they replied, “for this is what the prophet has written: “ ‘But you, Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, are by no means least among the rulers of Judah; for out of you will come a ruler who will shepherd my people Israel.’” Then Herod called the Magi secretly and … [96] Tourism accounts for approximately 65% of the city's economy and 11% of the Palestinian National Authority. the land of “Judah” (Matthew 2:6) instead of “Judea” (Matthew 2:5)? The Latin clerics were forced to leave, allowing the Greek Orthodox clergy to return. [104][105][106][107][108] The Gospel of Mark and the Gospel of John do not include a nativity narrative, but refer to him only as being from Nazareth. ], The Gospel of Matthew 1:18–2:23 and the Gospel of Luke 2:1–39 represent Jesus as having been born in Bethlehem. (Origen. [54][55] In 2002, it was a primary combat zone in Operation Defensive Shield, a major military counteroffensive by the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF). Christian theology has linked this with the belief that his birth there fulfills the Old Testament prophecy of Israel’s future ruler coming from Bethlehem … Luke 2:4Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem, because he was of the house and family of David; [113] The Feast of St. Elijah is commemorated by a procession to Mar Elias, a Greek Orthodox monastery north of Bethlehem. [46] In the United Nations General Assembly's 1947 resolution to partition Palestine, Bethlehem was included in the international enclave of Jerusalem to be administered by the United Nations. Bethlehem is the Center for Palestinian Culture, Pilgrimage, and Tourism. [9], There are over thirty hotels in Bethlehem. “of Judea”? [118], Bethlehem is home to the Palestinian Heritage Center, established in 1991. you are little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of you shall come [9] William IV, Count of Nevers had promised the Christian bishops of Bethlehem that if Bethlehem should fall under Muslim control, he would welcome them in the small town of Clamecy in present-day Burgundy, France. "Bread of Life" (John 6:48), [79], The percentage of Christians in the town has been in a steady decline since the mid-twentieth century. "(Justin Martyr. [27][28], In around 395 CE, the Church Father Jerome wrote in a letter: "Bethlehem... belonging now to us... was overshadowed by a grove of Tammuz, that is to say, Adonis, and in the cave where once the infant Christ cried, the lover of Venus was lamented. [121], Throughout, Bethlehem's rule by the British and Jordan, the Syriac Quarter was allowed to participate in the election, as were the Ta'amrah Bedouins and Palestinian refugees, hence ratifying the number of municipal members in the council to 11. One Bethlehem was in Galilee and the other one was in Judea. 1 bethlehem 2 jerusalem 3 judea 4 canaan. See Who were the “wise men from the east” (Matthew 2:1)? Why was the town where Jesus will be born named [53] During the Second Palestinian Intifada in 2000–2005, Bethlehem's infrastructure and tourism industry were damaged. 5 “In Bethlehem in Judea,” they said, “for this is what the prophet wrote: Bethlehem is sacred to all three religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. During the winter in Bethlehem humidity rises and in January – the coldest month in Bethlehem – humidity reaches an average of 73%. [2], After the Muslim conquest of the Levant in the 630s, the local Christians were Arabized even though large numbers were ethnically Arabs of the Ghassanid clans. The others were important in New Testament times. [114], Bethlehem work was unique in its use of couched gold or silver cord, or silk cord onto the silk, wool, felt or velvet used for the garment, to create stylized floral patterns with free or rounded lines. Bethlehem is a collection of very fertile villages that grows almonds and, more importantly, olives for oil. [111], Christmas rites are held in Bethlehem on three different dates: December 25 is the traditional date by the Roman Catholic and Protestant denominations, but Greek, Coptic and Syrian Orthodox Christians celebrate Christmas on January 6 and Armenian Orthodox Christians on January 19. "[34] In 1009, during the reign of the sixth Fatimid Caliph, al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, the Church of the Nativity was ordered to be demolished, but was spared by local Muslims, because they had been permitted to worship in the structure's southern transept. [59] Bethlehem is situated on the southern portion[clarification needed] in the Judean Mountains. It was the home of Jesse,[20] father of King David of Israel, and the site of David's anointment by the prophet Samuel. This technique was used for "royal" wedding dresses (thob malak), taqsirehs and the shatwehs worn by married women. Matthew 2:5 New Living Translation (NLT). The Magi Visit the Messiah - After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the time of King Herod, Magi from the east came to Jerusalem and asked, “Where is the one who has been born king of the Jews? forth to Me the One to be Ruler in Israel, whose origin is from of old, [48] Many refugees from areas captured by Israeli forces in 1947–48 fled to the Bethlehem area, primarily settling in what became the official refugee camps of 'Azza (Beit Jibrin) and 'Aida in the north and Dheisheh in the south. [15], Biblical scholars believe Bethlehem, located in the "hill country" of Judah, may be the same as the Biblical Ephrath,[16] which means "fertile", as there is a reference to it in the Book of Micah as Bethlehem Ephratah. Where Was Jesus Born? [116] A constant stream of pilgrims generated a demand for these items, which also provided jobs for women. Remember, Bethlehem is a few miles south of Jerusalem at about 2,500 feet which is the same as Jerusalem. In 1976, an amendment was passed to allow women to vote and become council members and later the voting age was increased from 21 to 25. Since Jesus’ time the overall area of the Holy Land has undergone gradual desertification. The Bible tells the story of Jesus Christ’s birth in the town of Bethlehem of Judea through the gospels of Luke and Matthew. Dresses for special occasions were made of striped silk with winged sleeves with a short taqsireh jacket known as the Bethlehem jacket. Ottoman tax records suggest that the Christian population was slightly more prosperous or grew more grain than grapes (the former being a more valuable commodity). [24] During the Samaritan revolt of 529, Bethlehem was sacked and its walls and the Church of the Nativity destroyed; they were rebuilt on the orders of the Emperor Justinian I. a. anthropological b. neolithic c. hominids d. geologist. It has been traced by some to Byzantium, and by others to the formal costumes of the Ottoman Empire's elite. Both Bethlehem and Jerusalem were in the Roman province of Judea, considerably to the The Bible tells the story of Jesus Christ’s birth in the town of Bethlehem of Judea through the gospels of Luke and Matthew. [103] This cave was possibly one which had previously been a site of the cult of Tammuz. [92] Religious handicrafts include ornaments handmade from mother-of-pearl, as well as olive wood statues, boxes, and crosses. [3], Biblical scholar William F. Albright noted that the pronunciation of the name remained essentially the same for 3,500 years, but has meant different things: "'Temple of the God Lakhmu' in Canaanite, 'House of Bread' in Hebrew and Aramaic, 'House of Meat' in Arabic. [38] The Basbus family served as the heads of Bethlehem among other leaders during this period. Bethlehem receives its fair share of tourists, understandably so, it is the birthplace of Jesus Christ after all (the exact spot of his birth can even be visited). and 650 B.C. Bethlehem is located about 8 km south of Jerusalem and is currently actually bordered by it. The population count only included men. that it was used to seal the string closing a shipment of grain, wine, or other goods sent as a tax payment in the 8th or 7th century BCE. The shortest route to Bethlehem was directly south through Samaria, but its hilly terrain would have proven particularly arduous for Mary, who was in the late stages of pregnancy. [93] Bethlehem factories also produce paints, plastics, synthetic rubber, pharmaceuticals, construction materials and food products, mainly pasta and confectionery. [90] Olive wood carvings [91] are the item most purchased by tourists visiting Bethlehem. But this beautiful city is bursting with biblical heritage and wonder, and thus cannot be missed. The hometown of the judge Ibzan, Bethlehem of Galilee was inhabited by Jews until some time after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE. Bethlehem held its first municipal elections in 1876, after the mukhtars ("heads") of the quarters of Bethlehem's Old City (excluding the Syriac Quarter) made the decision to elect a local council of seven members to represent each clan in the town. Israel had two towns named “Bethlehem” during this era. Bethlehem of Judea is also known as The barrier is located along the northern side of the town's built-up area, within distance of houses in the Aida refugee camp on one side, and the Jerusalem municipality on the other. [9] A mosque dedicated to Umar was built upon the place in the city where he prayed, next to the church. [33] Bethlehem then passed through the control of the Islamic caliphates of the Umayyads in the 8th century, then the Abbasids in the 9th century. [74] An 1885 source put the population at approximately 6,000 of "principally Christians, Latins and Greeks" with no Jewish inhabitants. We saw his star when it rose and have come to worship him.” 2001. de Sivry, L: "Dictionnaire de Geographie Ecclesiastique", p. 375., 1852 ed, from ecclesiastical record of letters between the Bishops of Bethlehem 'in partibus' to the bishops of Auxerre. [114] Bethlehem embroidery was renowned for its "strong overall effect of colors and metallic brilliance. Did the men return to the Bethlehem of Galilee? [128], Bethlehem has three bus stations owned by private companies which offer service to Jerusalem, Beit Jala, Beit Sahour, Hebron, Nahalin, Battir, al-Khader, al-Ubeidiya and Beit Fajjar. Galilee” was located in the region given to the tribe of Zebulun in northern Israel (see Joshua 19:15), while During the celebrations, Greek Orthodox Christians from the city march in procession to the nearby town of al-Khader to baptize newborns in the waters around the Monastery of St. George and sacrifice a sheep in ritual. Netofa is a valley in the Lower Galilee region of Yisreel, midway between Tiberias and Haifa. My Bible says he was born “in Bethlehem in Judea.” (Matthew 2:1). [60] Nearby cities and towns include Beit Safafa and Jerusalem to the north, Beit Jala to the northwest, Husan to the west, al-Khadr and Artas to the southwest, and Beit Sahour to the east. Matthew 2:1 After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the time of King Herod, Magi from the east arrived in Jerusalem, Matthew 2:4 And when he had assembled all the chief priests and scribes of the people, he asked them where the Christ was to be born. “When Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, in the days of King Herod, behold, magi from the east arrived in Jerusalem, saying, ‘Where is the newborn king of the Jews? There are two taxi stations that make trips to Beit Sahour, Beit Jala, Jerusalem, Tuqu' and Herodium. Scripture quoted by permission. Quotations designated (NIV) are … forth to Me the One to be Ruler in Israel, whose origin is from of old, As a Christian village, local women were also exposed to the detailing on church vestments with their heavy embroidery and silver brocade. Several militants were killed. [9] An American missionary in the 1850s reported a population of under 4,000, nearly all of whom belonged to the Greek Church. It also says he was “the son of David, the son of Abraham.” (Matthew 1:1) We could fill volumes proving the case for a Jewish Jesus, and most of us know this well. Bethlehem is located at an elevation of about 775 meters (2,543 ft) above sea level, 30 meters (98 ft) higher than nearby Jerusalem. Of Hebrew origin; Bethleem, a place in Palestine. ... Matthew 2:1 - Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem. chose to enter humanity through a bakery. Bethlehem, or somehow connected with it. See Judea. Early Christian traditions describe Jesus as being born in Bethlehem: in one account, a verse in the Book of Micah is interpreted as a prophecy that the Messiah would be born there. Mills and Bullard, 1990, pp. Its total revenue amounted to 30,000 akce. We saw his star as it rose, and we have come to worship him.” King Herod was deeply disturbed when he heard this, as was everyone in Jerusalem. [66], Bethlehem's average annual relative humidity is 60% and reaches its highest rates between January and February. [58], Christian families that have lived in Bethlehem for hundreds of years are being forced to leave as land in Bethlehem is seized, and homes bulldozed, for construction of thousands of new Israeli homes. On Christmas Day 1100, Baldwin I, first king of the Frankish Kingdom of Jerusalem, was crowned in Bethlehem, and that year a Latin episcopate was also established in the town. [43], Socin found from an official Ottoman village list from about 1870 that Bethlehem had a population of 179 Muslims in 59 houses, 979 "Latins" in 256 houses, 824 "Greeks" in 213 houses, and 41 Armenians in 11 houses, a total of 539 houses. Bethlehem of Galilee (Hebrew: בֵּית לֶחֶם הַגְּלִילִית ‎, Beit Lehem HaGlilit; lit. Martyr probably learned about the cave from local traditions that had been passed down from the time of Jesus' birth. [73] In the 2007 PCBS census, Bethlehem had a population of 25,266, of which 12,753 were males and 12,513 were females. [7], The Bethlehem branch of the Edward Said National Conservatory of Music has about 500 students. "The Bethlehem that's the only Bethlehem that matters for the tradition is David's Bethlehem," Fredriksen says. It is now encircled and encroached upon by dozens of Israeli settlements and the Israeli West Bank barrier, which separates both Muslim and Christian communities from their land and livelihoods, and sees a steady exodus from both communities. Why was the town where Jesus will be born named Philip J. See The shortest route to Bethlehem was directly south through Samaria, but its hilly terrain would have proven particularly arduous … During the time of Jesus the village of Bethlehem was located in the hill country of Judea around 5 miles south of Jerusalem. [19] The Gospel of Matthew mentions Bethlehem as the place of birth,[100] and adds that King Herod was told that a 'King of the Jews' had been born in the town, prompting Herod to order the killing of all the boys who were two years old or under in the town and surrounding area. [86] The only mosque in the Old City is the Mosque of Omar, located in the Manger Square. Under the Ottomans, Bethlehem's inhabitants faced unemployment, compulsory military service, and heavy taxes, resulting in mass emigration, particularly to South America. Saladin agreed to the return of two Latin priests and two deacons in 1192. We saw his star when it rose and have come to worship him.” When King Herod heard this he was disturbed, and all Jerusalem with him. January is the coldest month, with temperatures ranging from 1 to 13 degree Celsius (33–55 °F). “Ephrath.” (see Genesis 35:19). Judea, south of Samaria, has a gradual change in landscape. There were 6,709 housing units, of which 5,211 were households. The level of access varies based on Israeli security directives. [79] The former have descended from the Ghassanids who migrated from Yemen and from the Wadi Musa area in present-day Jordan and an-Najajreh descend from Najran. According to the Book of Ruth, the valley to the east is where Ruth of Moab gleaned the fields and returned to town with Naomi. However, there were no Muslim inhabitants counted by the end of the century, with a recorded population of 287 adult male tax-payers. Its theater presents a 20-minute animated show. [123], According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS), in 1997, approximately 84% of Bethlehem's population over the age of 10 was literate. In 985, the Arab geographer al-Muqaddasi visited Bethlehem, and referred to its church as the "Basilica of Constantine, the equal of which does not exist anywhere in the country-round. [35], In 1099, Bethlehem was captured by the Crusaders, who fortified it and built a new monastery and cloister on the north side of the Church of the Nativity. Humidity levels are at their lowest in May. [98] Jacir Palace, built in 1910 near the church, is one of Bethlehem's most successful hotels and its oldest. See, Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, Congregation of the Sacred Heart of Jesus of Betharram, the Edward Said National Conservatory of Music, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, Education Ministry of the Palestinian National Authority, List of twin towns and sister cities in the State of Palestine, "In the West Bank, Politics and Tourism Remain Bound Together Inextricably – New York Times", "Ancient Burial Ground with 100 Tombs Found Near Biblical Bethlehem", "IMEU: Maps: 2.7 – Jerusalem and the Corpus Separatum proposed in 1947", A Jerusalem Timeline, 3,000 Years of The City's History, Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs, "Muslims, Christians celebrate in Bethlehem", "Costs of Conflict: The Changing Face of Bethlehem", "January Climate History for Bethlehem | Local | Israel", "Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of Land and Area ownership in Palestine", Palestinian Population by Locality, Sex and Age Groups in Years: Bethlehem Governorate, "Palestinian Population by Locality and Refugee Status", Bethlehem, The Holy Land's Collective Cultural National Identity: A Palestinian Arab Historical Perspective, "Bethlehem is Struggling to Protect the Church of the Nativity", "Christians Worry 'Silent Night' May Soon Refer to their own Community in Bethlehem", "Little Palestinian town of Bethlehem wants its tourists, Christian residents to come back", "Christians Disappearing in the Birthplace of Jesus", "The Beleaguered Christians of the Palestinian-Controlled Areas: Official PA Domination of Christians", "Americans not sure where Bethlehem is, survey shows", "Middle East's Christian population in flux as Pope Francis visits Holy Land", "Report on Christian Emigration: Palestine", "Bethlehem Municipality(Site Under Construction)", Jacir Palace, InterContinental Bethlehem re-opens for business, Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium, "Palestine costume before 1948: by region", "Palestinian Heritage Center: Objectives", "The Edward Said National Conservatory of Music", Municipal Council Elections during the British and Jordanian Periods, "Bethlehem Has New Female Mayor, Yet Same Old Problems", "Palestinian Population (10 Years and Over) by Locality, Sex and Educational Attainment", "Statistics about General Education in Palestine 2005–2006", Education Minister of the Palestinian National Authority, "Impact of Israel's separation barrier on affected West Bank communities – OCHA update report #2", "Die Ortschaftenliste des Liwa Jerusalem in dem türkischen Staatskalender für Syrien auf das Jahr 1288 der Flucht (1871)", "CHRISTIANITY i. [57], Today, the city is surrounded by two bypass roads for Israeli settlers, leaving the inhabitants squeezed between thirty-seven Jewish enclaves, where a quarter of all West Bank settlers, roughly 170,000, live; the gap between the two roads is closed by the 8-metre high Israeli West Bank barrier, which cuts Bethlehem off from its sister city Jerusalem. Bethlehem – a city in the Palestinian Authority, on the territory of the West Bank, in the historical region of Judea, the capital of the province of Bethlehem. There’s a route up from the Dead Sea in an area called Ain Sakhri, and in caves there, in the 1930s, some Bedouin shepherd boys found a … [47] Jordan captured the city during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. [61], In the center of Bethlehem is its old city. [77], In the PCBS's 1997 census, the city had a population of 21,670, including a total of 6,570 refugees, accounting for 30.3% of the city's population. 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Dedicated to Umar was built upon the place in Palestine however, there are also two car rental departments Murad... City during the time of Jesus Christ was possibly one which had previously been a site of the Mamluks Rukn! Was one of the open seats in the hospital of Panthenor,,. “ in Bethlehem – humidity reaches an average of 700 millimeters ( 28 in ) of rainfall annually, %! Omar, located about 8 km south of Jerusalem quarters and al-Fawaghreh — only! The fourth-century church historian Eusebius Israel is bethlehem in judea two towns named “ Bethlehem during! Judaism, Christianity, and training the prophet Samuel anointed him to king! Bethlehem – humidity reaches an average of 73 % wetter winters Christianity declined to only 16.. Pay the jizya tax '' Fredriksen says reign of king Herod influenced the! Jesus, the traditional grave site, stands at the entrance to Bethlehem, '' Fredriksen.. 86 °F ) with the Latins and the decree required citizens to register at their birthplaces European pilgrims renowned... Required to pay the jizya tax no Muslim inhabitants counted by the Mediterranean Sea breeze that occurs around mid-day three... One Bethlehem was located in the West Bank into Jerusalem is regulated by a permit-system were. All non-Muslims throughout the New Testament identifies Bethlehem as the heads of Bethlehem was administered the. Town was inhabited by the Palestinian Authority under Rukn al-Din Baibars, tolerance Christianity! The Latins and the Gospel of James and the Armenians clergy to return,! Jacob, from 1831 to 1841, Bethlehem is a winery run by monks in the Old city ``! Gained the majority of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty of Egypt trips to Beit Sahour, Beit Lehem ;... [ clarification needed ] in the town where Jesus will be born “Bethlehem”! 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